This lesson will use analogies as way of presenting the course material. The course will center around the organizational structure of companies. The analogy that will be used will compare an organizational structure to the chain of command of a police department. Students will be able to identify the components of an organizational structure by comparing them to something with which they are likely more familiar. Furthermore, the students will create another analogy to help them better understand the organizational structure.

Chain of Command.gif

This image will be used for students to follow the chain of command of a police department.

Organizational Structure
Police Chain of Command
Top Management
-Set Objectives
-Scan Environment
-Plan and Make Decisions
Chief of Police
Middle Management
-Report to Top Management
-Oversee first-line managers
-Develop and implement activities
-Allocate Resources
First-Line Management
-Report to middle managers
-Supervise subordinates
-Coordinate activities
-Are involved in day-to-day activities
-Report to first-line management
-Carry out day-to-day activities
Corporal, Officers, C.G
This analogy graphic organizer will be used for students to compare the organizational structure to the chain of command of a police department.

The following information will be used to direct the lesson.

Analogies: A (blank) is to (blank), as a (blank) is to a (blank).
Analogies - plural of a·nal·o·gy (Noun)
Noun - A comparison between two things, typically on the basis of their structure and for the purpose of explanation or clarification.
A correspondence or partial similarity
Organizational Structure:
Management: The organizational structure of a company will be compared to the chain of command in a police force, or armed forces.
  • Top Management Chief of Police/Police Com., Super Intendant/Board of Ed
  • Middle Management Captains, Principal
  • First-line Managers Lieutenant, Department Heads
As a class, we will discuss the graphic organizer comparing organizational management to the police chain of command. After the class has an understanding of it, groups will make a different graphic organizer comparing organizational management to school district chain of commands.
Students will then create their own graphic organizer and compare the organizational structure aspects (specialization/departmentalization – functional and divisional) to something of their group’s choice.
Functional – HR, Operations, Marketing, Accounting
Divisional – Product, Customer, Process, Geographical

The following information was taken from the web resources and used to help build the lesson:

Whether comparing the concept of cells to building blocks or the term McCarthyism to a Salem witch trial, analogies are excellent tools used to create a bridge between new knowledge and known concepts.
“Analogies can serve as early ‘mental models’ that students can use to form limited but meaningful understandings of complex concepts” (Glynn, 2007). By asking students to consider the relationships between words, teachers can help trigger critical thinking on an abundance of topics and subjects (Vacca & Vacca, 1999).
Word analogies have been found to be useful thinking exercises that require students to draw inferences and offer a way to increase students’ vocabulary and comprehension (Readence, Bean, & Baldwin, 1998).
As with almost any learning strategy, activating students’ prior knowledge is a first step. This can be exceptionally important with analogies. Often seen as an equation found in standardized tests where each side of an analogy is balanced (i.e. Lincoln is to slavery, as Jefferson is to independence), the terms teachers use within an analogy can effect students understanding of the material being covered. Teachers should also remember to give demonstrations on how to successfully analyze an analogy, and model how students can create their own analogies (Vacca & Vacca, 1999).

How to Use the Strategy:
When using analogies in the classroom, teachers should take time to consider particular strategies that will enhance both vocabulary and comprehension. While equation type analogies can be used as bell work or a warm-up exercise, specific strategies such as the Teaching-With-Analogies Model, analogy maps, and analogical guides can be used within a variety of content area subjects in order to support student learning.
Teaching-With-Analogies Model Developed by Glynn, Duit, & Thiele (1995), the Teaching-With-Analogies Model help teachers use analogies systematically and effectively. Steps to using this model include the following (Glynn, 2007):
1. Introduce the target concept/word to students.
2. Remind students of what they know of the analog concept/word.
3. Identify relevant features of the target concept/word and analog concept.
4. Connect (map) the similar features of the target concept/word and analog concept/word.
5. Indicate where the analogy between the target and analog concept/word breaks down.
6. Draw conclusions about the target concept/word.
Subject: History
Target Concept or Word: proletariat
Analog Concept or Word: wage slavery, a term learned in our studies on slavery and the comparison between wage slavery and chattel slavery
Connections: Proletarians, under Marxism, is the opposite of the bourgeoisie (merchant class). The proletarians were defined as those who worked for the bourgeoisie for a wage, while the bourgeoisie got rich by selling the labor or goods created by the proletarians.
Breakdown: Proletarians were seen originally as those without wealth. Even though somewhat thought as only wage earners, Karl Marx preferred to consider them as salaried workers.
Conclusions: What’s important to remember is that a proletariat can be considered similar to a working class/blue collar worker of our time. They work for a wage or salary, but their work is sold by others to make a profit for themselves.
Analogy Maps
Using analogy maps can be helpful in assisting students to have a visual to use when looking for relationships. Dwyer (1998) suggests using a complete example, two incomplete examples for the student to complete, and one space for an example from the student. See below for a useful handout and example.
An analogy graphic organizer helps students link new information to familiar concepts. It can be used with elementary through high school students to introduce a topic, guide comprehension while reading, or extend the learning after reading (Buehl, 2001). It is usually used with expository text and is appropriate for all content areas. Using this organizer involves the following steps:
1. Select a concept familiar to the students that is analogous in certain ways to the new concept. For example, if the new concept is wolf, the analogous, familiar concept might be dog. If older students are preparing to study the progression of the women’s movement in the United States, an analogous, familiar concept to the students might be the Deaf President Now (DPN) movement or the Civil Rights movement in the U. S
2. Introduce a blank analogy graphic organizer and write the familiar and the new concepts in the appropriate boxes.
3. Brainstorm similar characteristics of the two concepts and write them in the left column.
4. Brainstorm the differences between the two concepts and write those in the right column.
5. After the lesson students revisit the graphic organizer, adding or revising the information.
6. Students write a summary describing the new concept using the information on the graphic organizer.